Friday, December 13, 2019

To the "Sword Widows"


We often do not thank our significant others (wives/girlfriends/husbands/boyfriends/insert appropriate title) enough for allowing us to pursue something which gives us so much joy. There is a time factor which needs to be taken into account. It is not just the weekends away at events every now and then, it is the during the week training as well, those can surely rack up if you count them. This post is to thank all of the significant people in our lives for giving us the time to pursue our passion.

Thank you.

For them to share their time with other people, most of whom they have never met before, or sometimes will never meet, there has to be some level of understanding. It is an understanding that this pursuit and study of swordsmanship, whatever its form, is important to us. Life can be very difficult when this understanding is not present, arguments are abound as there is no understanding why you need to spend the time going to training, or reading the books, or spending the money to pursue swordplay. It might be more understandable if it was relevant to our current age. It might even be more understandable if it was more "popular" or "normal", but it isn't. So there is a level of expectation of understanding for our sake. It is understanding that it is important for us. This also requires thanks.

Thank you.

Then there is the focus. For some of us the focus can be so great it tends to blot everything else out of existence. I am in that particular category quite often. For most things, if it requires huge effort and it does not relate to swordplay, you're going to have a hard time motivating me. Further things in our lives get more motivated toward swordplay. Getting fitter because you can fence longer. Expanding your book collection because you want to get more fencing manuals. Getting a place with a backyard or a close park so there is somewhere to train. This focus can be hard to live with sometimes. For understanding this focus when swordplay has become a person's driving passion there is also thanks required.

Thank you.

You are the foundation of our support teams even though you probably did not know it. It is because it is you who sees us through the mundane tasks that gets us to swordplay. You help organise things so that we can get to participate in swordplay. For all the things that you do not realise that you do that help us with our passion, thank you.



P.S. And Thank you again.

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Accuracy is the Best Weapon


The following discussion is about accuracy and the assertion that "accuracy is the best weapon". This will be discussed from three different points of view, all of which are relevant to those with an interest in swordplay. Accuracy is an element of which its importance cannot be denied, but for many where the application of accuracy applies, it is only limited whereas its scope is much wider.

Accuracy is always more important than speed. An accurate thrust which is a little slower is far more dangerous than a fast thrust that does not always find its mark. This is the primary place where accuracy is seen as important in swordplay, but it is not the only place. The same accuracy can also be applied to the cut as well. A cut which can be directed to a specific target each time is more dangerous to an enemy than a fast one that might find its target. Speed can always be solved with timing, accuracy is reliant on itself. The most amusing thing is that the accuracy in attack leads on to a discussion which is often forgotten.

Accuracy must be maintained in the use of the weapon. This means accuracy in technique. It is from here that efficiency is built and from here that real speed is built. When the individual focuses on accuracy of technique they will find that the weapon will be more controllable, thus it will go where they want it to and be more accurate. Due to the accuracy of technique there will be less wasted motions made in the technique, thus it will be more efficient thus it will seem to be quicker. Speed is built more efficiently from accuracy of technique rather than muscle power. Accuracy of technique also means that the fencer will defend themselves better, attack better, and fence better in general. Accuracy of technique should always be the focus when using the sword.

Accuracy is also necessary in the use of research materials. It is vital that a person present what is actually said in the research materials rather than some other interpretation of what is said in them. The skill to present research materials in a usable fashion is one which takes time to hone, and also takes acknowledgement of an individual's personal biases as well, as these will colour the presentation of the research material. Especially where there is some interpretation required from what is presented, as is found in primary source fencing treatises, particular attention needs to be paid to presenting what is in these sources accurately.

Accuracy is also required in arguments. A person needs to say exactly what they mean to say, and the person on the other side of the argument needs to hear exactly what was said. One of the reasons why arguments of an intellectual kind become so heated and become emotional is because people are not accurate in the presentation of their arguments. One side or the other adds or subtracts from what was said by the other party and this is where intellectual arguments degrade into just plain arguments with little point and little intellectual result. In these arguments emotion needs to be removed so that the intellectual side may be maintained. Accuracy is important so that points of view may be presented properly and so that arguments are presented accurately.

Accuracy in all its forms is of vital importance. For the fencer this comes in many different forms, from the attacks made, to research made, to actions performed, to arguments made. Each one must be made accurately so that the fencer can put themselves forward in the best light and in the best manner. Each one takes practice and time to develop, but each has rewards for the person willing to take that time.



Sunday, October 13, 2019

Check Your Height


Much has been said in various manuals and treatises about the combat of the short fencer against the tall fencer and also vice versa. These are considerations of note and need to be taken into account. What does not seem to appear all that often are considerations of teaching a shorter or taller student and how this may change the approach that the teacher might take. This is something which needs to be considered as this will affect how the individual will be effective with their weapon.

Being a taller person, actions are performed in a particular way, and tactics are appropriate to a particular method. These are not so much for a shorter person. Thus as a taller person who is teaching people who are shorter, these things need to be taken into account. This is vital otherwise we are teaching the shorter person simply that they will be less effective because they are shorter and cannot do what the taller people can do, and this does everyone concerned a disservice.

What is ironic is that most people assume that because taller people have the length that they have the advantage, this is not necessarily the case. If a person who is shorter than their opponent extends their weapon from their shoulder, they will be directing their point toward the target area of the opponent.  If a taller person extends their weapon from their shoulder, they may be directing their point over the head of their opponent. By having to drop the point down, length is lost due to the change in angle from the right angle at origin to an acute angle. The same reason a person may safely stop-hit at the face while keeping their leg free from attack. This is also something that should be taken into account.

In teaching the height of the individual must be taken into account, especially if there is a marked difference in height between the trainer and student. There is little point in teaching a short person to fight like a tall person as they do not have the reach, and there is not much greater advantage of the reverse because then the taller person will not learn to use the advantage of their reach. Actions which rely on an individual being a particular height as compared to their opponent should be examined, as many of them will not be as effective, and in some cases effective at all when the fencer is shorter. It is at this point in time that the trainer needs to change tact to suit the student.

A cut delivered vertically designed to clear or at least block the opponent's weapon while striking them is an excellent attack and works beautifully when executed properly, when the fencer is the same height or taller than the opponent. When the fencer is shorter, the angles are changed. The sword will connect further up on the weapon and so will not have the strength to do the job designed and the striking part of the weapon is less likely to strike the opponent due to length. The result is that this technique is not as effective, if at all. The trainer thus needs to find an alternative, such as stepping off-line and striking the arm, or stepping off-line and coming upward and underneath to strike the flank. This is only one example, there are many more.

Both teachers and students need to take height differences into account, not only from the point of view of combat situations, but also from a teaching point of view. A shorter or taller student is going to result in different angles as a result of their height. These are going to have to be taken into account in their training, and some actions will have to be modified. A good teacher will look at this as just another challenge to be surmounted in the adventure of teaching.



Friday, September 13, 2019

Studying the Sources


The following article is the result of a discussion that I had with Lois Spangler about studying the sources. There are various questions that we all have to ask ourselves when we are studying the sources so that we can understand what we are actually doing. Many of them are just a really good read, and this is great, but there is often a further motive behind the study and this what will be discussed here.

Single or Multiple?

In some cases a source will be found which appeals to us on a very basic level. Maybe it is one which is different from what everyone else is studying, maybe it just suits the way that we move, or maybe due to a talent for a particular language we have an advantage because no one else can read it completely. This results in the focused study of a single source. In my case, I picked up Saviolo's (1595) His Practice in Two Books some 20-odd years ago and have been studying it on and off ever since, because it appeals to me. Why on and off? Is a focused study not the best way to do things? Yes, and no.

There are also new manuals which are being scanned, translated and being made available all of the time. This is a great boon to the swordsmanship community at large. A person may be studying a single manual but another may come out which draws their attention, what should they do? This would depend on the individual. I have read various manuals in various forms, in many instances it is to keep up with what students are studying, and also to keep up with what others are also studying. This does not detract from the primary manual that a person studies, in fact it enhances it. A greater appreciation of swordsmanship can be gained from examining multiple manuals than from just focusing on a single one.

Reasons and Justice

What this all comes down to is the reason for studying a treatise. There are many different reasons for studying a treatise. The prime reason is to recreate what is written in the treatise, but this is not the only reason. Another reason is to find the foundation elements so that they can be examined to compare to another treatise for similarities and differences, this way elements can be traced through lineages and also across continents. In some instances a manual may be picked up just for "tips and tricks" i.e. just to add an extra couple of techniques to a person's repertoire. A teacher may also examine a manual to understand what their student is studying. Each one is a different reason.

How do we do a source justice? What doe this even mean? For some, the only way to do a source justice is to go through the entire manual and use every element. For others, this is not even a concern. This all goes back to the reason for studying the manual in the first place. If a person is studying a treatise to examine social elements within it, the technical elements to not even play a part in the examination, therefore there is no need to consider recreating these technical elements. If the study is for comparison of a single technical element, then the other elements are not really required. For example, a cross-manual examination of rapier and dagger, then only the rapier and dagger parts are really pertinent. The reason for examining the manual must be taken into account in all instances.

De-focusing and Re-focusing

There are reasons why in the study of a single treatise a person should be looking elsewhere to get a better perspective of what they are studying, sometimes it is even a necessity. This allows a better perspective of the work which is being studied and often a greater understanding of what is being studied. I will take as an example Saviolo's (1595) His Practice in Two Books because it is the one which I have been studying.

To begin with this is not simply a fencing treatise, it also includes a discussion of duelling, which the author actually spends more pages on. From this part of the treatise alone it can lead to the reading of other treatises in discussions of duelling, honour and other similar concepts to gain a greater understanding of what the author was discussing. Focusing more on his more practical elements, Saviolo's treatise is not of a "pure" school. It is a combination of Italian and Spanish for sure, with suggestions of German as well.

To understand this treatise in all of its detail the reader really should have a grasp of the foundation elements of the Italian and Spanish schools for sure, with some of the German as well. This grasp can only be gained by looking elsewhere, not at the treatise itself. This means following a tangent to examine something which is not the primary source which is being examined. This investigation will further enhance the reading of the primary source as a greater understanding will be had. In the case of Saviolo, I can assure you that following the tangent to gain an understanding of the foundations of these schools will grant a better understanding of his treatise.

The same "de-focusing" or following a tangent can be useful to the study of other treatises. A study of Renaissance mathematics of philosophy, for example can give the individual a greater understanding of the mind of the writer. An examination of treatises of a similar period, or tradition can establish trends and elements which are common, or changes, all of which lead to a greater understanding of the original text that was being studied. In this case the broader understanding does have great advantages, when this understanding is re-applied to the original text.

Re-focusing is the other side of the same coin. This is focusing on a single treatise to the exclusion of all others. There are times that this is what is required to get a clear and consistent reading of a treatise without the words being muddied by external sources. In this particular case it is where external sources can be an issue because they do influence how we interpret what is being read. Our history influences how we interpret what we read, what we have learnt influences it also, as does our cultural background and many other different factors.

If the treatise is read in accompaniment with another's interpretation of it, then our own interpretation can be swayed by that interpretation. Likewise if the treatise is read in accompaniment with other secondary sources about a similar subject, this will also colour the interpretation. This can be an issue as these influences are not always positive. Often it is best to focus on what the author of the treatise is talking about and what they are saying, without any interpretation. This is difficult when the treatise is translated from a different language as there is inherently an element of interpretation present.

How can this fit with "de-focusing" then? In this other process, resources are selected which are designed to enhance the understanding of the treatise. An enhanced overall understanding is what the aim is. Thus, in reading another treatise it is the foundation elements which are important rather than particular techniques. In reading philosophy it is to understand the mind-set of the author, rather than the philosophy in detail. The broader topics are read so re-focusing is easier later on, so greater understanding is possible.

What Now?

When a primary source is taken to study there are certain elements which must be in play for the person studying it to achieve their end. There must be some sort of connection between the person studying the treatise and the treatise, this has to be something which is going to keep them going through the hard parts of its examination. Studying treatises is not an easy task if it is going to be done properly. There also has to be a real reason for the individual to want to take the time to read and study the treatise. It will take a lot of time, and often a lot of re-reading. This form of reading and interpretation is not a direct nor simple process.

The elements which have been raised here are for information but also for discussion. My position is only one, others may have a different point of view, and they should share it. The more people we have talking about period sources the better. The more people we can encourage to study period sources and come up with their own interpretations the better. Some will be the same, and some will be different. Just because they are different, doesn't mean it is wrong. They might have a different point of view which is worth investigating.

Let your investigations take you different places. Follow the tangents in your investigations, it can only lead to a greater understanding of what you are studying. Found something which you do not understand? Go research it. Found something different or interesting? Go research it. Examine the different pathways and backgrounds to the people who wrote the treatises, figure out some of what they would have read, and go and read some of it, you will gain a greater understanding of them and their treatises. Sticking assiduously to the treatise without looking side to side is not necessarily the best approach, you have to occasionally lift your head up and look around as well.



Tuesday, August 13, 2019

On Holding the Sword


The action of holding the sword is one of the most fundamental of fencing, and yet it is one which seems to be passed over in preference for other subjects such as how the rest of the body should be placed. It would seem that holding the sword, or the grip would be a simple action, but there are mistakes that can easily be made which will affect how the sword is used.

Gripping the sword seems simple enough but there are often mistakes made. The sword is sometimes held too tightly or too loosely. The sword is sometimes held by the wrong fingers, or with the pressure of the wrong fingers. Each one of these elements can impact how the sword is used by the fencer. Of course it also depends on which sword is being spoken about, so some specificity is necessary before proceeding any further.


The reason that the sword needs to be spoken about is that the hilt shape and construction will be important to how the sword will be correctly held. Holding a foil with a French grip will be different to holding a sabre, which will be different to holding a rapier. Due to it being the weapon which I have most familiarity with, the rapier will be the focus of the discussion. To this, the weapon will be taken to have a straight handle, quillons, and a ricasso as the essential elements which will be required.

Sword Methodology

With the weapon and hilt discussed, the gripping of the weapon can be returned to. The rapier may be gripped in several different ways, depending on what the fencer intends to do with the weapon, and how the fencer wishes to fence with it or what style they wish to use. Again, some specificity is required because often the grip will change to suit the the methodology of using the sword. For the purposes of this discussion the fencer will be assumed to be using an Italian or Elizabethan methodology, thus using both cut and thrust, but primarily thrust.


A sword which is held too tightly is difficult to move because the muscles are already constrained. It is also difficult to practice fine movements because of the constraint on the muscles. Further, feeling through the blade (senso di ferro or sentiment du fer) is more difficult to access if the weapon is held too tightly. If the weapon is used to cut, the weapon will more likely smack into the target and bounce off rather than slicing into the target. Finally, holding the sword tightly uses energy which will tire the hand quickly which means the fencer will tire quickly.

A sword which is held too loosely is difficult to control, and is thus difficult to practice accurate fine movements due to the lack of control. The weapon is more easily controlled by the opponent. The weapon will be easily beaten and the fencer is more likely to be disarmed. If the weapon is held too loosely it will not be able to apply the pressure that is required to transmit a proper cut, and the looseness of the blade will likely make it bounce off rather than slicing the target.

The rapier should be held by the index and the thumb primarily, assisted by the other fingers. If it is held by the middle, ring and little finger, there will be less control over the point. There will also be a higher likelihood of the fencer being disarmed due to the lack of pressure around the ricasso. Pressure from the lower fingers should only be used to move the point about, these are manipulators.

The Grips

In every method, the sword should be gripped as if holding a small bird. Firm enough so that it will not fly away, but not so tightly that you will crush it. Another way to think of this is how you would hold the hand of your significant other, tight enough to let them know that you are there, but not so tight that you will crack their knuckles. The grip should be firm not tight.

The first method of gripping the rapier is the single finger grip in which the index finger alone is wrapped around the ricasso, around the true edge. The thumb should fold over and either sit on the quillon block or on top of the index finger, or on the false edge of the ricasso. The other three fingers should be then wrapped around the handle. This is the method that I prefer.

The second method of gripping the rapier is the two-finger grip in which the index and middle fingers are wrapped about the ricasso. They are both placed about the true edge side of the ricasso. The thumb is then placed against the index finger or against the false edge of the ricasso. The ring finger and little finger are then wrapped about the handle.

Other methods of gripping the sword are modifications of one of these two methods. The only method which I strongly discourage is one in which the index finger is wrapped around the quillon on the false edge side of the ricasso and the middle finger is wrapped around the quillon on the true edge side of the ricasso. This method results in a "punch-grip" on the sword, which often results in a lack of control and also striking much harder than is required for this weapon.

Which Method?

Which method should you use? The one which is most comfortable for you. So long as you follow the guidelines which have been presented here, and then find the method which is most comfortable for you and provides you with the easiest method of movement of the sword, then you should be fine.

If you have any questions about this, feel free to ask. Ask your trainer, ask your class-mates, everyone will (or should) have an idea of the reason why they hold the sword in the way that they do. Different ideas about how to hold the sword can only be of benefit.

The correct method of holding the sword is essential for using the sword properly. Actions can only be performed accurately and properly if the sword is held properly. Often the root-cause of a fencer's issue with a particular technique is that they are simply holding the sword incorrectly, or at least with some issues. The most fundamental elements have the greatest effect on your fencing, the way that you grip your sword is one of these.



Saturday, July 13, 2019

Drills are Not Combat


Have you ever been in a class performing a drill and a person states that they could counter the action that you are doing with another? How about, that the drill that they are doing is artificial and does not relate to combat? What has happened here is that the person who has made these statements is probably true on the first, and is definitely true on the second, and it is because drills are not combat.

Drills are related to combat in that they will teach you the skills that you will use in combat. They will teach you the individual skills not how they should be used in combat. If you approach your combats the same way as you approach your drill expecting that your opponent is going to give you the cues and exact attacks given in a drill, you are going to be sadly mistaken.

A thrust and parry drill teaches one partner how to thrust properly, and one partner how to parry properly. It teaches the each partner the bare mechanics of one action and the timing of the action of the parry. Nothing more. Then they swap and they get to drill the other action and learn it. This is not combat.

Even when the drills become more complex, it is still not combat. In the drill: one thrusts; the other parries, binds, steps in and cuts and then moves off to a safe position on guard. There are several actions in this drill. It is not combat because the opponent does not respond to the bind, nor the stepping in, nor the cut. Even when the counter is added to the drill, it is still not combat. It is a drill with a responsive element. It teaches the student how to close and cut, and also how to respond to an opponent who does the same.

Drills are artificial and they often do not relate to combat because they take skills in isolation and focus on them so the students can learn them. Drills are designed to take a skill or a set of skills and work on these particular skills without the involvement of others in particular, or at all in some cases. There are drills which do not use footwork, something which is mostly essential in combat for the fencer to survive. There are drills in which one partner only defends, something that is not likely to happen in combat. Drills are artificial and they are supposed to be, they are skill-focussed.

The next time that you are drilling remember to focus on what's being worked on at that point in time. There is no point in worrying about how it relates to other things, your trainer will get around to showing you how it all fits together. Drills are designed to put a particular skill or skills in a situation where they can be focussed on and used over and over. This is so that the skill can be learnt. This is the purpose of drills, for learning. Combat is a different thing altogether.



Thursday, June 27, 2019

Move Slow, Learn Fast: Another Look - Part III


The following is the third and final part of this subject. I will apologise to my dear reader as this and is preceding parts are quite long. This was the only way for the appropriate information to be included in the document as a whole, and to not drag it out into more parts. This is a subject that has been spoken about previously; it is presented with more detail and new evidence.



Speed in Fencing

          In fencing there are a lot of comments made about the speed of fencers; how fast they move, how fast their actions are, and so forth. The problem is that this becomes the focus and speed becomes overestimated in its worth to the fencer. Speed is only one attribute that a fencer would find an advantage possessing, but it is not the ultimate.
“While many fencers believe that speed is the most significant factor in a fencer’s makeup, this is not the case. To be sure, speed can be useful, but it is, in fact, subordinate to both timing and distance. ... A fencer who has taken the time to develop both timing and distance can easily take a “fast” fencer apart.” (Evangelista, 1996:165)
           Speed is tertiary to the ability to control Time and Distance, and accuracy. If you cannot control the Time or timing of the bout, then the opponent will not allow you the time to strike them; if you cannot control the Distance of the bout, you will always be too close or too to strike the opponent; if you are not accurate, you will not strike your opponent even if you have the opportunity to. Develop the essential principles and how they apply and accuracy not only of your point and edge, but also in your actions as they will affect the principles by which all fencing is governed. 
“A fencer who has been fencing for a longer period of time has practiced his actions a lot more than a newer one, thus they are closer to being locked in thus they are more automatic. Thus the more experienced fencer will seem faster when using these skills which have been practiced.” (Walker, 2019:281)
           The experienced fencer has practiced more, thus they have more of their skills as neural pathways, thus they have to think less about what they are doing, thus they have time to plan what they are doing, and not just worry about what is in front of them. True speed in fencing comes from efficiency of motion. An experienced fencer has had the time to refine their skills and remove excess motions so their actions are more efficient. While some are also more physically adept, and developed due to fencing, this is not always the case. Simply adding muscle, power, strength and speed will not help.
“When people do that — add speed to mediocre technique — they just get more mediocre results. It's like the sign that says, "Drink coffee ... make more mistakes faster and with more energy!"” (Ox, 2016)
           Accuracy of technique is always more important than speed. This should always be the focus of training. The fencer should always focus on getting their skills accurate and developing form before ever worrying about speed or strength. Adding these in too early will develop bad form. Speed in training may hide issues, but these same issues will cause the student problems later on. Caile (2017) addresses the same problem with regard to the Oriental martial arts.
“Fast, however, also can hide a lot of problems – especially bad technique. ... Too often, there are poor biomechanics ... things that can dramatically reduce power and efficiency.” (Caile, 2017)
           Poor biomechanics are a real issue as they can not only lead to ineffectiveness in technique but this can also lead to strain on muscles and joints and future injury. Slow practice allows for the correction of issues thus the chance to prevent some possible future issues. Such correction should always been seen as adding rather than subtracting from the experience. Speed in training used to cover bad habits is not an ally.

Slow Training

Fencing for the most part is a quick, energetic form of combat or sport, depending on what your weapon is. This means that the actions are quick and precise, and responses to actions are likewise. With this in mind, for some, it will be difficult to understand how practicing actions slowly will help them progress when in the end they are going to have to perform the same actions at speed. This is something which you will find will come from the greener students for the most part, but some advanced students as well.” (Walker, 2019:278)
           The above appears as the second paragraph of my previous article on the subject of slow training, which can be found in A Fencer’s Ramblings (2019). That discussion was much shorter and designed to introduce people to the idea of learning through slow movement training, and all that can be learnt. This investigation is obviously much more in-depth, but the same issues still apply. There are those who do not understand the advantages of slow training and who believe that once a skill is learnt, then slow training is no longer required. This is evidently not the case as such slow training is used by high-level athletes in their regular training; it is a faster way to high-level skill presentation.

The Faster Way

“One of the most powerful training techniques for building high-quality speed was "slow training." It still works for Olympians, and it has been proven incredibly effective for martial arts (think Bruce Lee) and firearms training as well.” (Ox, 2016)
           With such a lot of high-level athletes supporting the idea of slow training, it is surprising that there is so little knowledge about it and support for it in the swordplay communities. The broad spectrum of activities should be noted which were mentioned which use this method for training. In these situations, the development of perfect form and functions of skills is of great importance. Ox (2016) further describes the process in which such slow training was used.
“They developed and perfected their form at a much slower pace, and then speed came naturally. Ideally, they practiced at a speed that allowed them to do the same motion with perfect efficiency and form — exactly the same way, every time — until it became automatic and required no conscious thought to do.” (Ox, 2016)
           When an action, or a series of actions is practiced at a slow pace, corrections can be made easily so the action can be corrected, thus less practice is wasted practicing the wrong thing. The athlete can then more easily practice the correct actions with accuracy knowing all of the elements involved, so every time that they practice the neural pathways are built more quickly and stronger than if they had been performed at speed. Fencing actions are no different.
“You might be thinking combat skills are different. They're not. In fact, the faster you intend to execute a given skill and the more stress you think you might be under when you execute it, the more critical it is that you practice slowly.” (Ox, 2016)
           Each extra element which is heaped upon the skill adds a level of interference. The faster the skill is required, the faster the muscles are going to be pushed, the more accurate the skill must be practiced. When there is more stress in the situation there is going to be more pressure to perform the skill at exactly the right moment, which will affect how the skill is performed. All of these factors will affect the skill. Only a skill which has been practiced properly will achieve its goal.
          While it would seem the opposite, slow training is the way to get faster, as frustrating as it is. “I know slow practice is frustrating and tortuous, but it really is the fastest way to get to a high level.” (Icasas, 2015). Slow training trains for precision in the skill and eventually that skill will have been practiced so that conscious effort is not required, it will just happen in response to stimulus. Pushing for speed rather than slowing down and being accurate will allow inaccuracies into your skills, “but slow training will help you get to the level of performance you want to achieve faster than always trying to push your speed.” (Ox, 2016). Simply because slow training is precise, slow training is practice for perfect, and perfect practice makes perfect.
“When learning new physical skills the mind works to automatically integrate them into a learned vocabulary of automated body movements. But if you learn technique too fast, the technique will likely be sloppy and imperfect. If you practice very slowly, you can concentrate, breaking each technique down into its individual parts.” (Caile, 2017)
           Many try to cover bad form with speed. This is not just the case with fencing and swordplay, but also the same for other activities. Bad form means bad technique and this usually comes from practicing the technique too fast in its initial stage when the skill has not been learnt properly. Slowing down allows the skill to be learnt properly and practiced properly. Speed is a product of efficiency and proper form, thus it is something that will come later with practice.

Form First, Speed Second

“In the beginning, an aspiring fencer should focus on form rather than quickness. To try fencing with the alacrity of D’Artagnan before you are ready for it only confuses matters. When you have a solid grasp of what you are doing, when you can get your blade to go where you want it to go, then, and only then, add speed.” (Evangelista, 1996:165)
           There is little point having speed if you cannot hit what you want to hit. Accuracy is always more important than speed. Accuracy comes from having proper form as it is form which places the body in the correct position to allow accuracy to occur. This is expressed in the variation in foot position and its effect on the thrust. Slowing down allows you to focus on getting things right so that you are in control of the actions. Focus on the skills that you are practicing.
“That’s why “slow” should be part of every practice. What this means is that you should practice various techniques very, very slowly, while intensely focusing on what and how you are doing it, paying attention to correct biomechanics, balance and form to try to eliminate any errors of technique.” (Caile, 2017)
           Practicing slowly allows you to feel every movement of your body and to feel what the technique feels like. If you are wobbly in your technique, then it is likely that your feet or body are not in the correct position. Check the position of your hand; this will affect the position of the blade, by extension check the position of your arm and shoulder. These things can all be achieved at slow speed because you have the time to feel it. Work on one technique at a time.
“Master each technique slowly and carefully, without rushing or being rushed, and you’ll be fine. If your instructor, director and/or partner try to rush you, and you are not ready to move on, say “No!” and stay at slow motion until you are secure. You will be happier in the long run for doing that, and possibly healthier too.” (Girard, 1997:5)
           Girard (1997) is discussing in the context of actors and techniques for stage choreography and choreographed fights. The same applies. Do not move on to moving more quickly with your practice of a technique until you are comfortable with it. Ensure that you can perform the technique properly and with the minimum of errors possible, stay at slow speed until you can. Only then should you speed up, “With slow training, the focus is on how many perfect reps you can do in a row, not how quickly you speed up.” (Ox, 2016). Precision in action is the aim of practice as there is no point in practicing something which is not accurate, as it will just have to be repeated with the correct action later on.
“Always start slowly, correctly and precisely. Ensure that your fundamentals are correct before worrying about speed and power. If you follow this advice, you will have a higher chance of developing correct historical fencing technique without injuring yourself.” (Farrell, 2014:278)

The Advantages

          Some of the advantages of slow training have already been indicated above in the discussion. So that these advantages can be more clearly stated, they will be discussed in more detail. These advantages can be stated in different ways but in the end they mean the same thing. The idea is to bring some clarity to what the advantages are.

Diagnostic Tool
The use of slow work allows us to see the body and weapon moving. This is something which is much more difficult to see at full-speed when bouting. What this means is that the combatant and any observer can see how the combatant is moving his or her weapon and body. This can allow a person to see where a possible change in footwork, body movement, or hand movement can make a difference to their technique. As a diagnostic tool, slow speed performance of technique is very useful.” (Walker, 2019:279)
           Slow training has one of its greatest advantages in diagnosing problems. In the initial training stage, a teacher can easily pick up issues with a student’s technique and correct them before it becomes a bad habit. Slow bouting as a technique used in training, a student can see how to respond to an action and respond properly ingraining the proper response. Likewise repeating actions is possible as they are easier to remember and other options can then be found.

2    Muscle Memory
“Doing it slowly gives your body time to adjust to and memorize all those disparate movements. Repeating it slowly is like carving it into your muscle memory, creating a lasting impression that it can draw on at a moment’s notice, once you’ve practiced it enough.” (Icasas, 2015)
           Each action in slow training is made deliberately from one position through to another. The body has the time to remember not just the first and the last, but each position through the process, meaning that the body is likely to remember the technique that is being practiced more effectively. The slow movements connect to one another to form a picture of a technique rather than a set of individual movements which do not seem that well connected. Such connections make the learning process faster.

3    Faster, More Efficient Technique
“If you incorporate “slow” into your practice, your technique will improve, unnecessary movements will be eliminated, and you will learn to better keep your balance through progressions of movement. Thus your technique will improve and you will become stronger and faster, the very thing you were aiming for in the first place.” (Caile, 2017)
           Giacomo di Grassi, in His True Art of Defence (1594), states that every movement is accomplished in time. If a movement has excess movements made during it, the movement becomes inefficient. This is not good for a fencing technique. Slow training allows you to eliminate unnecessary movements from techniques, thus increasing the efficiency of techniques, thus increasing the overall speed of the techniques. This is because you can focus on the technique that is being performed more accurately than you can if it was practiced at speed.

4     Performance Under Stress
“But the benefits of slow practice goes beyond just eliminating wasted movement and getting faster. It also helps you perform better under stress.” (Ox, 2016)
           When a person is under stress, their brain is flooded with various chemicals designed to deal with the situation. These put the brain on high alert. They unfortunately do not do anything for the performance of skills in a cold, calculating way. Too much adrenaline makes the hands shake for starters. Slow practice has made the technique which is being performed a normal action which is performed in response to a set of stimuli, nothing more. This is when the neural pathways have been built and are solid. This skill remains unaffected by these racing chemicals and their reactions within the body. The slow training of the technique also means that the relaxed situation in which it was practiced is transferred to the situation and the technique is still performed with the same deliberate actions, because that is what the brain and body have been told to do.


          Unfortunately, slow training is not all good news; it does have its issues. Luckily most of these have more to do with the trainee rather than the method. “I do have to admit that it has downsides. Most of these are a result of coming into it with the wrong mindset.” (Icasas, 2015). Mindset is an important factor in any sort of training and must be taken into account. In examining the issues, some of the mindset that accompanies these will also be examined.

“I don’t have any stats to back it up, but after having taught martial arts courses and enrolled in a dozen more - plus learning musical instruments, rally driving, and others—I feel confident in asserting that this is where many newbies fall off the wagon.” (Icasas, 2015)
           Slow training is not easy. It takes time and it takes control. The trainee has to be willing to take the time to slow down and look at exactly what they are doing and how they are doing it, and be willing to be corrected. Control itself takes time to develop and this is the key to staying slow, because in our high-speed, fast-car world, we are obsessed with how fast things go. The student needs to understand that the slow training is the best way, and is of the greatest benefit to them. Here is the mindset which is required: for great reward, there needs to be great effort.

     Bad Habits
“Different bad habits. In practicing slow, you may develop a whole different set of bad habits.” (Icasas, 2015)
           If you do not focus on what you are doing you can develop a whole new set of bad habits which is the reason why focus is important when performing the actions in slow training. It is vital that you pay attention to the accuracy of your technique and not short-cut any of the techniques, but move through all of the movements correctly and accurately. The trainer should always be paying attention to the students’ actions, but the students should also be paying attention to their own actions.

“Stuck on “slow.” There’s a saying that goes, “you play as you practice.” This applies to slow practice in both positive and negative ways. Perform slow practice too often, or with the wrong mindset, and you risk performing slowly even when you’re trying to perform fast.” (Icasas, 2015)
           Being stuck on slow is a matter of mindset. In training slow the focus is performing techniques to get them correct so they can be performed with speed and accuracy. If there is no progression toward increased speed then there is the possibility of getting stuck only doing slow training and thus when increased speed is required, there will be a problem. Branching training toward increased speed should always be included, but only once the technique is correct. Remember the reason for the slow training.

Needs to be Done Right

          To be effective, “All it means is that slow practice needs to be done right in order to be truly effective.” (Icasas, 2015). The student and the teacher both need the correct mindset toward the slow training in the beginning for the slow training for it to be performed correctly. The focus is on getting techniques correct and then moving this technique on toward normal speed. This element always needs to be present in the mind of both student and teacher.
“Be mindful. Keep track of everything that you do. Notice any bad tendencies you may have and work hard to iron those out during your slow practice. Do an action at the regular speed, figure out where your stumbling blocks are, and use your slow practice to overcome them.” (Icasas, 2015)
           The technique needs to be performed at speed once the technique is correct. Only then will you find out how you will actually perform it under some pressure. If there are issues found, then slow speed training can be used to eliminate these issues. This backwards and forwards play between normal speed and slow speed should form a part of your normal training to eliminate any of the errors that you might have in any of your techniques. Efficiency of technique is the key to improving speed.
“Don’t forget to push. Remember the original purpose of your slow practice: to improve your high-speed performance as fast as possible. Challenge yourself to increase your pace while still maintaining proper form and technique. Don’t stay frozen at the slow pace forever.” (Icasas, 2015)
           Slow training is used for the increase of accuracy in technique. Once accuracy is gained in the technique, then it should be pushed a little for speed. Accuracy needs to be maintained. If accuracy begins to wane, then the speed should be brought back a little until the technique can cope with the speed, then it can be increased again. This method allows for an increase in speed while maintaining accuracy, but accuracy should always be the prime goal. The speed should be developed on the basis of efficient movement rather than simple raw power of the muscles.


          In this investigation is a discussion of slow training and the theoretical elements which are related to it. The investigation has covered many different areas including neuroplasticity and other subjects in the area of neuroscience, but also areas of physical pursuits as well. Such areas are related because they all are focussed upon the same goal, the learning and retention of motor skills.
          Initially, for the fencer, some of these subject areas would have seemed somewhat out of place, hence there was a discussion of the sources at the beginning of this investigation. Drawing sources from far afield enriched the discussion and demonstrated that the idea of slow training is not one that is new or is without foundation. Such evidence brought to bear means that the idea of slow training even for such an energetic and quick pursuit such as fencing is based in firm foundation.
          To understand how slow training is of benefit meant that it was necessary to understand somewhat of how the human body and mind learns motor skills. This is where discussions of neuroscience where necessary. It was vital that these discussions did not delve too deeply so as to confuse the audience, but sufficiently enough to present sufficient evidence. There were presented various phases of learning and it was presented that slow training, when used during these phases is of great benefit as it reinforces the skill being learnt by the individual. Further this illustrated the important connection between the body and mind which often goes overlooked.
          With the subject of motor skill learning established, the subject of muscle memory, or neural pathways, was addressed. This was directly related to the previous as it is through slow training that neural pathways can be better established in the trainees mind, and thus a greater connection to the body may be made. These neural pathways take time to develop and this is enhanced through the use of slow training because the focus is on the technique and the elimination of excess movements from the technique, thus to become more efficient. Repetition is the key to building neural pathways, but it is of greatest importance to repeat the correct thing.
          The last sections of discussion were made with regard to speed and slow training. Speed was demonstrated to be only one attribute, and one which is not as important as other more elementary attributes which the fencer should cultivate. With this established then slow training was directly addressed. With all of the information previously presented such presentation is well-founded. This allowed a more practical approach, while keeping a theoretical basis to the discussion. The subject of slow training itself was discussed and how it was advantageous for the development of form, and the development of efficiency of movement which is the true key to speed. Practicing slow allows the body to remember better and corrections are more easily made. Such training must be made with mindfulness of what the goal of such training is and what the student is participating in.
          The concept of slow movement to enhance learning is not one which is new. It is a concept which has been present in the Oriental martial arts and is demonstrated most clearly in Tai Chi, though it is also present in other disciplines. Western practitioners of martial arts and other activities also use slow training to enhance their skills due to the advantages which have been presented; such advantages can be embraced by the fencer if only they will put their mind to it. The most imperative element with regard to slow training is that the fencer must commit to the slow training, and be mindful of what they are doing for it to have its greatest benefit.


Caile, C. (2017) “Viewpoint: The Power of Slow” in [Accessed 19/03/2019]

di Grassi, G. (1594) His True Art of Defence ..., I.G., London (

Duke, T. (2015) “Changing Neural Pathways” SportEds.Com (Jun. 25), [Accessed 10/4/2019]

Evangelista, N. (1996) The Art and Science of Fencing, McGraw Hill, New York

Farrell, K. (2014) Scottish Broadsword and British Singlestick, Fallen Rook, Glasgow

Girard, D. (1997) Actors On Guard: A Practical Guide for the Use of the Rapier and Dagger for Stage and Screen, Routledge, London

Halo Neuroscience (2016) “The Athlete’s Guide to the Brain: Motor Skill Learning” (Mar. 17), [Accessed 10/4/2019]

Halo Neuroscience (2016a) “The Athlete’s Guide to the Brain: Hyperplasticity” (Feb. 25), [Accessed 10/4/2019]

Icasas, P. (2015) “Practice Slow, Learn Fast” in How to Suck Less, [Accessed 19/03/2019]

Ox, M. (2016) “Slow in practice means fast in combat” in MultiBriefs: Exclusive, [Accessed 19/03/2019]

Petrosino, J. (2018) “Training to Build New Neural Pathways” in Elite FTS: Columnist (Aug. 19), [Accessed 10/4/2019]

Saviolo, V. (1595) His Practise In Two Bookes…, John Wolff, London (

Walker, H. (2019) Un-Blogged: A Fencer’s Ramblings, Sword and Book Enterprises Pty Ltd, Brisbane

Windsor, G. (2013) The Swordsman’s Companion: A Modern Training Manual for Medieval Longsword (2nd ed), Guy Windsor, Helsinki

If you are interested in obtaining a pdf-version of the entire document for ease of reading and research. Please feel free to contact me at, with the subject line "Slow Training - Another Look"

Thursday, June 20, 2019

Move Slow, Learn Fast: Another Look - Part II


The following is the second of three parts of this subject. I will apologise to my dear reader as these are quite long. This was the only way for the appropriate information to be included in the document as a whole, and to not drag it out into more parts. Unlike my regular blogs, while the first part appeared on its usual monthly date, the following parts will appear one week after one another so that you are not kept waiting too long for the next part. This is a subject that has been spoken about previously; it is now presented with more detail and new evidence.



Motor Skill Learning

“neuroplasticity is what allows for the acquisition and retention of motor skills. By motor skills, we are referring to finely coordinated muscle movements such as batting, putting, and free throws.” (Halo Neuroscience, 2016) 
          The same category of movements also apply to all those found in fencing. The following part discusses the science behind the acquisition of motor skills and how they are implanted in the brain. There is enough science presented here to demonstrate the basis for these ideas, but not so much that to confuse the issue. To this end, only a single source has been used to keep things simple, though other sources during this investigation will refer to the same processes.

Motor Skill Learning: Two Phases of Learning

“Motor skill learning is defined as the process by which movements are executed more quickly and accurately with practice. Motor skills are acquired over multiple training sessions until performance reaches a plateau. There are two phases of learning: a fast phase and a slow phase. The fast phase involves rapid improvement over the course of one single training session. The slow phase involves small, steady gains that develop over multiple practice sessions, eventually reaching a stable peak.” (Halo Neuroscience, 2016)
           In the acquisition of a skill this plateau is the sign that the skill has been learnt as the skill level does not increase for a period of time; at this point in time the basics of the skill have been acquired. The ascent to this plateau is marked by two phases, as noted, a fast phase and a slow phase. The acquisition of the essential skill happens rapidly, the accuracy in this skill occurs over a longer period of time. It is in this second part of the process that most will get frustrated.
“In your subsequent practices, you begin the slow process of gaining accuracy so that the vision in your brain matches the movements of your body.” (Halo Neuroscience, 2016) 
          The slow process of gaining accuracy in a skill is what bogs many down and also discourages many. Here, many will want to move on to the next thing because they have the basics of the skill, thus think they have learnt enough. The important thing is to stick with the practice and gain accuracy in the skill so that it can be performed properly and so that the brain retains it accurately. From a slightly different point of view, skills are gained in a three stage process.

Three Stage Axis of Acquisition

“In addition to the division between fast and slow, motor skill acquisition can be separated into stages across another axis:
 1.     Encoding
2.     Consolidation
3.     Retention & Recall.” (Halo Neuroscience, 2016)
The three stage axis of acquisition presents a slightly different approach to the previous acquisition of a skill, but gives more detail about some of the specific processes involved. For skills in swordplay, this approach is more useful when examined. The encoding stage is when the skill is learnt, the consolidation is when the skill is more deeply processed, usually in the mind so that it becomes a part of normal process, and finally the retention and recall is the final part where the skill becomes a part of the individual so that they can call upon it without conscious thought, thus having built an appropriate neural pathway, or muscle memory.
“Encoding overlaps with the fast learning period and refers to the process by which a motor skill is converted from an experience to a construct that is stored in the brain. The majority of encoding will occur online — or the interval during training sessions.” (Halo Neuroscience, 2016) 
Encoding is the first stage and is where the skill is initially learnt. The skill must be learnt properly in this process. Slow training is most useful here because the body can move through the action slowly and thus remember each movement in intimate detail, rather than rushing through the action, possibly missing some of the nuances. It is also here that mistakes can be made if the learning process and the skill is not the focus of the student.
“In contrast, skill consolidation happens offline — or the interval between training sessions. Sleep is a critical offline period; it’s when the majority of skill learning is consolidated in the brain. Consolidation can be thought of as an intermediate phase between fast and slow learning.” (Halo Neuroscience, 2016)
           Consolidation happens after the class has finished. If the student goes over the skill in their mind with a vivid image of what they have learnt, there is a likely chance that they will remember what they have learnt and it will be stored properly. The mind most definitely has its part to play in the process. The moving image of the skill which is given by the brain, or to the brain, is the one which is going to be repeated, thus a vivid image remembered from the class is best for the process. Thinking about fencing, helps your fencing. 
“The last stage of learning, retention, occurs simultaneously with the slow learning phase, during both offline and online periods. The result of retention is the commitment of the learned skill to muscle memory and the ability to retrieve this memory at will. Muscle memory refers to the ability to perform a skill without any conscious effort.” (Halo Neuroscience, 2016) 
The last stage of learning is retention. Once retained a skill can be corrected, but it takes a lot of work due to the effort put into placing in into the muscle memory as it is. This is the reason why practice must be made accurately initially and where slow training has an advantage because corrections can be made more easily as they can be more easily seen. Once retained, a skill is then used without conscious effort, it is simply applied to the situation at hand; this is the goal of muscle memory. A different part of the brain is used to operate the skill as the skill is moved toward muscle memory. 
“Once a skill is committed to muscle memory, the motor cortex is less involved, and activation switches to lower-order processing areas such as the cerebellum where subconscious motor memories are stored. This reflects the behavioral shift that occurs as the motor skill improves — i.e. less and less reliance on thinking until the skill can be completed with no conscious effort.” (Halo Neuroscience, 2016) 
          The advantage for the fencer is that  they do not have to think about how to do the action, just doing the action, or in some instances not even that. The fencer’s mind is then free to think about other things such as observing the opponent to see what they are doing, and planning ahead for their next series of actions. This is where much of the advanced fencer’s speed comes from, a lack of conscious effort applied to skills.
          Understanding the learning process allows a person to see where and how they need to apply themselves. The use of slow training techniques in a training routine allows for skills to be learnt in an intimate way allowing for an accurate retention of the skill. This aids the learning process, even if it would seem to slow the process down somewhat. In the end the fencer will have learnt the skills much more effectively than if they had rushed through and only used drills at speed.

Muscle Memory

 “studies have shown that even elderly people can generate new neural pathways and increase their capacity for learning and memory. Simply put, our brains are malleable, moldable, plastic. Thus, it makes sense that this phenomenon of rewiring the brain is known as neuroplasticity.” (Halo Neuroscience, 2016a)
           Neuroplasticity was discussed previously. There are elements of neuroscience which cannot be avoided when discussing the subject of memory, more so when discussing the building and retention of skills. Neuroplasticity is the phenomenon which occurs every time a skill is learnt, and this does not matter whether the skill is a motor skill or a more mental skill.
          What is most interesting is that this investigation began simply focussing on training and methods using slow techniques, it has branched out to include such subjects as have been included due to the research which has been performed on subjects in sport. “Pop culture calls it "muscle memory." Science calls it "neural pathways."” (Ox, 2016). While not knowing it, many practitioners of the arts of the sword had been discussing the subject of neuroscience, in layman’s terms admittedly, without even knowing it. It is these neural pathways which will be the focus of this part.

Old Pathways

          Neural pathways form an important part of our everyday lives that we take for granted. We walk, we pick things up, we move things, all sorts of activities, “it's just a fact and a consequence of the neural pathways ingrained in your brain that have made these things second nature.” (Petrosino, 2018). Neural pathways make activities part of our second nature, they make skills so that we do not have to think about them, we just do them. This gives us great advantage because it allows us to be thinking about other things while doing something else. Of course, it is not all that simple. Old habits are hard to break.
“In the gym and in training, most people’s defaults are to go to whatever movement pathway has become their autopilot. I mean, heck, that's even true in life. People take the same routes to work, and they default to the same behaviors when stressed, etc.” (Petrosino, 2018)
           Everyone has at least one habit that they would like to break. Of course that means that they have to fight against the neural pathways which have, for the most part, been unconsciously written. For those who are participants in sport or other activities, these habits may be a part of the activities, in which case the neural pathways have probably been somewhat more consciously written, but also in some cases there is also some unconscious activity. In either case the task of re-writing is difficult.
 “The brain is an amazing super computer, capable of directing and coordinating complex motor and mental skills. Once a movement pathway becomes embedded into it, however, it becomes very set in its ways.” (Duke, 2015)
           Luckily, due to neuroplasticity it is possible to write new neural pathways, or even re-write old neural pathways. The brain is most definitely malleable in this respect, and this is a good thing. It means that we can get rid of those bad habits.

New Pathways

“The science community has done a lot of work in recent years showing that the brain can both make new neurons (neurogenesis) and new neural pathways (neuroplasticity). Neural pathways are just a series of neurons connected by single or bundled fibers that connect to send signals from one region of your brain to another or to the rest of your nervous system. Hence, these neural pathways allow your body to consciously and subconsciously carry out activities.” (Petrosino, 2018)
           What this means is that all of those poor neurons that most of us killed in our late teens and early twenties with the consumption of alcohol are not lost, they can come back. You just have to encourage them to do so, and this means using your brain. This is not the focus of this investigation to gain knowledge. The focus is on the gaining and the development of neural pathways for skills. For neural pathways, that involves the training of both the body and the brain, and both need to be involved in this process for the most effective result. Petrosino (2018) describes three stages of making a new neural pathway.
“To make a new neural pathway, you go through three stages: cognition, association, and autonomy. The cognitive stage is where you learn a new thing, like a new way to squat, by watching, doing, and thinking. It's the introductory phase to the new “motor pattern.” It's a hard phase because you need to figure out how to do the damn thing without reverting to old patterns. In the associative stage, you start doing the new thing more. This stage is where the newly learned motor pattern starts to become more natural. However, in this stage, the new skill/pattern/thing isn’t natural yet, making it somewhat frustrating. The final stage, the autonomous stage, is where you finally do the damn thing without consciously thinking about it. It’s the stage we all want to get to immediately but need to go through tons and tons of repetitions to get to.” (Petrosino, 2018)
           The three stage model presented, describes a process for the development of a new neural pathway, or a new skill. It resounds much like the process that was given in the previous part of the investigation about motor skill learning, with little surprise. It is the association which will take the longest period of time as it is here where the repetition will come in, slow training will be most useful in the cognition stage, but also useful in the association stage to ensure that the skill is correct and practiced correctly. For the improvement of a skill the same process applies, but more focus needs to be applied.

Improvement of a Skill

          While Duke (2015) is discussing the acquisition of a skill in his discussion, if a person wanted to improve a skill, the same process actually applies, but there more focus is needed, “not only is performing repetitions of a new movement a key in learning it, but to both feel and see the movement will only make your swing hologram more vivid.” (Duke, 2015). His discussion uses a golf swing as an example, but the same can be applied to any skill. You need to feel and see the movement which is being made, and this needs to be performed slowly so you can see and feel exactly what’s going on.
This idea of Duke’s is further developed to include, “Eyes-open, slow-motion swings will increase your visual awareness, and eyes-closed swings will further enhance what you are feeling.” (Duke, 2015). To enhance the two different senses he focusses on one and then blocks out the other so that the individual can focus and find out exactly what they are doing. All the actions are done slowly.
The whole idea of both the slow-motion with eyes open and eyes closed is so that the brain can register every movement of muscle, joint and bone so a firm image of what’s exactly going on can be formed in the brain. With this image of the perfect form this is the target, without it, what is the target? Or as Duke expresses, “If you don’t have a vivid image and feel for your movements, what are you expected to recall when you hit the start button on your golf swing?” (Duke, 2015). This same approach can be applied to the skills of swordplay, and any other skill, and used to both improve the skill as well as learn it.

Neural Pathways: Easy to Establish, Hard to Develop

“I’ve been told it only takes 30 seconds of consciously thinking about something to build a new neural pathway, and that might be true. But it takes hours of repetition for it to become second nature.” (Petrosino, 2018)
           Neural pathways are relatively easily built, but it takes quite a bit more effort for that neural pathway to become developed and significant. It is a pathway which is being built, if it is not used particularly much, it will be present but not particularly prevalent, active thought will be required to use that particular skill. The way something becomes second nature, thus to be built into muscle memory so it is second nature, is through repetition, and lots of it.
“To make stage combat a safe practice, it must be ingrained into the actor’s muscle memory through constant repetition. By slowly repeating mechanics, a thin layer of “potential habit” is placed in one’s physical and mental memory. The mind and body begin to make the actions more natural; this is known as kinesthetic learning.” (Girard, 1997:5)
           Kinesthetic learning is essentially learning by doing. It is learning through doing a physical activity. In this particular case it is learning through the repetition of the skills which the individual wants to learn. In the case of an actor it is the directions of the fight director, in the case of a swordsman, it is the techniques of swordsmanship. These are learnt through the practice and making them more natural to the person who is using them. The more natural a skill can become the more likely it will be used.
“it is much easier to engrain a movement pattern if it’s natural, or in accordance with the laws of nature. The point here is that the more things we can “let” happen in the golf swing, instead of trying to make them happen, the less tension and compensations are required. It will also be easier to develop and consistently use these new neural pathways.” (Duke, 2015)
           If an action feels awkward because it is biomechanically unsound, then it is less likely that the person is going to learn it. If it is biomechanically sound then the student is more likely to retain it and practice it as taught. There must be some leeway in teaching of physical skills for physical variance, because everyone is not built the same way. An action which is more natural to a student is the one that they are going to learn. This is also assisted if the skill can be connected to something they already know. The brain will protect those skills which we use the most.
“In fact, neuro science shows us that when you practice something over and over, exactly the same way, you not only create a neural pathway in the brain, but it also gets surrounded by an insulating sheath of cholesterol called myelin. This insulating sheath protects the neural pathway from the performance-robbing effects of adrenaline, noradrenaline, cortisol and other chemicals that are released in extreme stress situations.” (Ox, 2016)
           Not only does practice reinforce a skill in the sense that it reinforces the practice of the skill but it also protects the skill on a biochemical level. Meaning that even the body gives the individual benefits from practicing. Old skills should be practiced as much as new skills to continue their protection, but as this is a discussion of new neural pathways, these will be the focus. How much practice you put in is not as important as regularity and what you practice.
“we know we can considerably speed up the process of creating a new neural pathway if we are constantly refreshing the correct movement. Ten minutes a day verses 1 hour a week will yield faster results. Note that I said “correct movement,” not “correct positions.” Without getting too deep into the rabbit hole of neuroscience, the Holonomic brain theory supports that people learn motor skills not by linking a progression of positions together like line-by-line computer code, but instead by storing the entire movement as a neural 3-D hologram.” (Duke, 2015)
           Practice needs to be regular and movement-based. Short periods of practice each day are better than large practices in single lumps each week. The idea is to keep the skill fresh so the brain will remember the skill and be reminded what it looks like, so the motions are reinforced. Previously old skills were mentioned as needing practice as well as new skills, and this is very true. Old skills should always be re-visited so that they are reminded and remembered. Thus practice needs to be continued.
“If you continue to practice, the optimized brain-muscle output will be maintained and so will the skill, but if you neglect practice, the functional connections will become less synchronous, resulting in poorer performance. So, there really is a reason why your mother always told you that practice makes perfect. It all comes down to neuroplasticity.” (Halo Neuroscience, 2016a)
           Practice is important for the maintenance of all skills. Anyone who has played any sport or been involved in any activity over a period of time will have noted that if they missed practices over an extended period of time that their skills waned. It was not that they had forgotten how to do things, just that they were not as sharp as they were previously. Practice is vital to continued proficiency at high levels, but the practice must be effective and it must be practicing the right things.
“It takes about 500 repetitions of an action to put it into your muscle memory, but you must practice it accurately. Any mistake you make in the action will also be practiced into muscle memory as well and it will take 50,000 repetitions to remove a mistake from muscle memory, so it is best to do it right the first time. Any action which is placed in your muscle memory can be performed without thought, this means you will react quickly to the stimulus given by your opponent; another reason why you must practice accurately and why your partner must give you the correct stimulus when you practice.” (Walker, 2019:241)
           The problem is that a person may practice a skill over and over again, but if they are not focussed on what they are doing, errors can creep into their practice. This means that these errors can become a part of their skill, thus a part of their neural pathway. Meaning that they have done their practice, but they are not perfect. With this in mind, a saying needs to be modified, “Perfect practice makes perfect.” Each skill that is practiced, needs to be practiced so that it is practiced the same way, consistency is vital, with one another, and with the form that is intended. A veteran player or swordsman will have done their practice so established their pathways, thus they will have much more difficulty in correcting their mistakes than a beginner.
“This is why more experienced students have such difficulty correcting their form – they have so integrated technique into muscle memory that unless they are concentrating on what they are doing in terms of improving their technique, they just revert to what they have done all along.” (Caile, 2017)
           The best way to avoid problems with form or practice is to avoid the mistakes to begin with. Practice accurately in the beginning and there will be no issues to deal with in the later stages of your career. One of the ways to do this is to have a training buddy to watch you and assist you with your form. Another way, or a way to add to this, is to move slowly, taking the time to get it right before moving more quickly.
“It’s also really important to start slow. When you do a motor pattern fast or under a heavy load, this makes you susceptible to reverting to old neural pathways and complicates your neural learning abilities. However, if you slow movements down, and work on doing them right, it will be much easier to make them turn into second nature. Then, once it’s actually natural to you, work on speeding movements up or making them heavier.” (Petrosino, 2018)
           When you are learning a new skill it is easy to develop bad habits. When you are re-learning a skill, or improving a skill it is even easier to revert to bad habits. Speed in the execution of practice will only enhance the chances of you reverting to bad habits, and often without you even noticing. Old habits are easy to fall into; natural ways, which may not be the correct way, are also easy to fall into. Take the time perform the skill properly and slowly until it is correct and you can feel what it feels like. Focus on the movement.
“Even in training and especially for drills the movement at slow speed is very useful. Corrections to technique are more easily made at slower speed than they are at faster speeds. A student can develop a lot of muscle memory by moving slowly because they can focus on the movement of individual parts of their body in order to make the technique being performed more efficient. A trainer can see the movement of each part in slow speed and make corrections to engagement and position of the student in order that they are learning the correct techniques.” (Walker, 2019:279)
At slow speed the technique can be corrected more easily. At slow speed it can be felt more easily, and can be felt if it is wrong more easily. Speed will cover up mistakes, but while this will result in no correction, it will result in bad habits and incorrect movements. It will also result in having to repeat training to improve. Speed is not an ally in many training scenarios. Don’t be hasty. Don’t rush. Take your time and do it properly.

The end of Part II
The Bibliography will be found at the end of Part III.